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Marie Gilbert, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Hibernation is an essential survival strategy for some animals and scientists have long thought it could also hold promise for human survival. But how hibernation works is largely unknown. Scientists at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have successfully induced hibernation at will, showing how the process is initiated. Their research is published in the July 26 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.
A hibernating animal has a reduced heart rate and blood flow similar to a person in cardiac arrest, yet the hibernator doesn’t suffer the brain damage that can occur in people.
“Understanding the neuroprotective qualities of hibernating animals may lead to development of a drug or therapy to save people’s lives after a stroke or heart attack,” said Kelly Drew, senior author and UAF professor of chemistry and biochemistry in the Institute of Arctic Biology.
Hibernating animals survive by severely reducing their metabolism, a condition called torpor, in which oxygen consumption can fall to as low as one percent of resting metabolic rate and core body temperature to near or below freezing temperatures.
Arctic ground squirrels, like all animals and people, produce a molecule called adenosine that slows nerve cell activity.
“When a squirrel begins to hibernate and when you feel drowsy it’s because adenosine molecules have attached themselves to receptors in your brain,” said Tulasi Jinka, lead author and a postdoctoral fellow in Drew’s lab.
The receptors can be regulated by a simple cup of coffee. A caffeine molecule is similar enough in structure to adenosine that it binds to the receptors and effectively stops or reverses the onset of drowsiness. Jinka and Drew wanted to know what substances trip the squirrels’ switch to start to hibernate.
“We devised an experiment in which non-hibernating arctic ground squirrels were given a substance that stimulated adenosine receptors in their brains. We expected the substance to induce hibernation,” Drew said. “We also gave a substance similar to caffeine to arouse hibernating ground squirrels.”
The non-hibernating squirrels were tested three times during one year. They were tested during the summer when they were not hibernating, again early in their hibernation season and a third time midway through the hibernation season. If animals were hibernating before the test, Jinka woke them up to see if the substance would cause them to go back into hibernation. To ensure that his expectations did not influence the results he delivered a placebo in the same manner as the drug and did not know which solution contained the active substance when he conducted the experiments.
Torpor was induced in all six of the squirrels awoken during mid-hibernation season, but in only two of the six from the early hibernation season group and in none during the summer season. The caffeine-like substance reversed torpor in all of the hibernating squirrels.
“We show for the first time that activation of the adenosine receptors is sufficient to induce torpor in arctic ground squirrels during their hibernation season,” Jinka said, who conducted this experiment while he was a graduate student.
What Jinka and Drew don’t yet know is how season causes the receptors to become increasingly sensitive to adenosine as the time of hibernation progresses.
Jinka and Drew are expanding their adenosine research to rats, which more closely resemble the physiology of humans.
“Rats allow us to move toward being able to apply this research to humans,” Jinka said.
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By Joel N. Shurkin, ISNS Contributor
(ISNS)—Life for elephant seals is nasty and brutish—but their sex lives are legendary.
Only the biggest and most brutish males are believed to reproduce. During the annual breeding season, huge males, called beachmasters, rule harems of much smaller females. The beachmaster drives off all male competitors until another big, aggressive male comes along and dethrones him. It is believed to be one of nature’s purest examples of polygyny.
In this case, evolution favors the strongest and biggest.
It turns out those helpless females may not be so helpless, at least in one colony. Large numbers of female Southern elephant seals at the edge of Antarctica are ignoring the polygyny system in favor of sex in the high seas.
But evolution may also favor the wisest.
Researchers from Australia and South Africa have found that large numbers of female seals skip the yearly breeding interval at Marion Island, approximately located between the two continents of Africa and Antarctica. When they finally do show up, they are pregnant, and the beachmaster had nothing to do with it. Almost three-fourths of the males skip the violence and frustration as well.
955 miles off the African coast, Marion Island is a wildlife preserve full of seals, penguins and seabirds that is administered by South Africa. According to Nico de Bruyn, a marine mammal ecologist at the University of Pretoria, the seals come to land twice a year: once to molt, the other to reproduce. Both tasks are much easier to do on solid land than in the tossing ocean.
Male bull elephant seals are enormous, some measuring 16 feet long and weighing more than 3 short tons.They have a proboscis, or trunk, almost a foot long, hence the elephant in their name. They are loud, smelly and mean-tempered.
Female elephant seals are one-fourth the weight and up to 6 feet shorter than males.
The seals employ delayed implantation, meaning the fertilized egg does not implant itself and begin development until the timing is exactly correct for the pup to be born on land, a 12-month gestation period including the delay. On Marion Island, that is in October, de Bruyn said. All the pups are born within days of each other.
Females nurse the young for only about three weeks and are then ready to reproduce again. The bulls, alpha males, are so large many females and pups are killed when an amorous or bellicose bull lands on them. On the crowded beach there is no place to escape.
But the researchers, reporting in Animal Behaviour, have found that as many as half the females refuse to play along, staying in the ocean and mating with whom they chose rather than joining the chaos on the beach.
"For a male, even if he is huge in comparison to the female—which they are—coercing a female is so much more difficult in the water because she has more options," de Bruyn said.
The researchers began their work of marking and capturing animals because of concern about a dramatic decline in Southern elephant seals noted in the 1980s. The population at Marion Island was down 80 percent for reasons unknown, although de Bruyn said that it has stabilized now and is even showing a slight increase.
De Bruyn does not think this evasion of is new behavior.
Oddly, that behavior is not seen in other elephant seal colonies. Daniel Costa, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, studies the Northern elephant seals that breed at Ano Nuevo on the California coast.He doesn’t think that behavior is common.
"We have no evidence that it occurs in Northern elephant seals.I’m not even sure how prevalent the observation is for Southern elephant seals," Costa said. "We know that our females do not hang out in the water. I can say this because we track them onto the beach from sea, or at least the 300-plus females we have tracked don’t spend a lot of time offshore. They just come in and land on the beach."
And then end up in some beachmaster’s harem.
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When people recognize voices, part of what helps make voice recognition accurate is noticing how people pronounce words differently. But individuals with dyslexia don’t experience this familiar language advantage, say researchers.
The likely reason: "phonological impairment."
Tyler Perrachione with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology explains, "Even though all people who speak a language use the same words, they say those words just a little bit differently from one another–what is called ‘phonetics’ in linguistics."
Phonetics is concerned with the physical properties of speech. Listeners are sensitive to phonetic differences as part of what makes a person’s voice unique. But individuals with dyslexia have trouble recognizing these phonetic differences, whether a person is speaking a familiar language or a foreign one, Perrachione says.
As a Ph.D. candidate in Neuroscience at MIT, Perrachione recently examined the impacts of phonological impairment through experiments funded by the National Science Foundation’s Directorate for Education and Human Resources.
He and colleague Stephanie Del Tufo as well as Perrachione’s MIT research advisor John Gabrieli hypothesized that if voice recognition by human listeners relies on phonological knowledge, then listeners with dyslexia would be impaired when identifying voices speaking their native language as compared to listeners without dyslexia.
They also theorized that listeners with dyslexia hearing a foreign language would be no more impaired in voice recognition than listeners without dyslexia, because both groups would lack specific familiarity with how the foreign language was supposed to sound.
The journal Science reports their findings online today in an article titled "Human voice recognition depends on language ability."
For their research study, the MIT scientists trained individuals with and without dyslexia to recognize the voices of people speaking either the listeners’ native language of English or an unfamiliar foreign language, Mandarin Chinese. In each language, participants learned to associate five talkers’ voices with unique cartoon avatars and were subsequently tested on their ability to correctly identify those voices.
The listeners were either typically-developing readers or individuals who experienced reading difficulties and dyslexia growing up.
The neuroscientists found individuals with dyslexia were significantly worse at being able to consistently recognize the voices of the English speakers. They were about the same as listeners without dyslexia at recognizing the Chinese voices; both groups were very poor at recognizing voices speaking an unfamiliar language.
"It is remarkable that individuals with dyslexia are no better able to identify voices speaking a familiar language than a foreign one," says Perrachione. "It is also very interesting that the reason for this is that they are less accurate at voice recognition than individuals who don’t have dyslexia."
The result reaffirms the theory that the underlying deficit in dyslexia isn’t about the act of reading per se, but instead involves difficulty with how sounds of spoken language are heard and processed in the dyslexic brain.
Contemporary theories of dyslexia often propose a "phonological deficit" as the reason some people struggle to translate written images into meaningful language. The idea is that individuals with dyslexia tend to do poorly on tests that ask them to decode words using conventional phonetic rules, thereby resulting in reading delays because of difficulties connecting language sounds to letters.
What theories of dyslexia have not been able to convincingly explain, say the researchers, is why there is no evident difficulty in the ability to perceive and produce speech among people with dyslexia. This is especially curious if the ability to recognize phonological sounds is impaired.
"Our results are the first to explicitly link impairment in reading ability to impairment in ecologically processing spoken language," says Perrachione. "The results suggest that the source of a phonological deficit might be in dyslexic individuals’ difficulties learning the consistent properties of speech sounds as spoken by an individual talker."
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Geological history has periodically featured giant lava eruptions that coat large swaths of land or ocean floor with basaltic lava, which hardens into rock formations called flood basalt. New research from Matthew Jackson and Richard Carlson proposes that the remnants of six of the largest volcanic events of the past 250 million years contain traces of the ancient Earth’s primitive mantle—which existed before the largely differentiated mantle of today—offering clues to the geochemical history of the planet. Their work is published online today by Nature.
Scientists recently discovered that an area in northern Canada and Greenland comprised of flood basalt contains traces of ancient Earth’s primitive mantle. Carlson and Jackson’s research expanded these findings, in order to determine if other large volcanic rock deposits also derive from primitive sources.
Information about the primitive mantle reservoir—which came into existence after the Earth’s core formed but before the Earth’s outer rocky shell differentiated into crust and depleted mantle—would teach scientists about the geochemistry of early Earth and how our planet arrived at its present state.
Until recently, scientists believed that the Earth’s primitive mantle, such as the remnants found in northern Canada and Greenland, originated from a type of meteorite called carbonaceous chondrites. But comparisons of isotopes of the element neodymium between samples from Earth and samples from chondrites didn’t produce the expected results, which suggested that modern mantle reservoirs may have evolved from something different.
Carlson, of Carnegie’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, and Jackson, a former Carnegie fellow now at Boston University, examined the isotopic characteristics of flood basalts to determine whether they were created by a primitive mantle source, even if it wasn’t a chondritic one.
They used geochemical techniques based on isotopes of neodymium and lead to compare basalts from the previously discovered 62-million-year-old primitive mantle source in northern Canada’s Baffin Island and West Greenland to basalts from the South Pacific’s Ontong-Java Plateau, which formed in the largest volcanic event in geologic history. They discovered minor differences in the isotopic compositions of the two basaltic provinces, but not beyond what could be expected in a primitive reservoir.
They compared these findings to basalts from four other large accumulations of lava-formed rocks in Botswana, Russia, India, and the Indian Ocean, and determined that lavas that have interacted with continental crust the least (and are thus less contaminated) have neodymium and lead isotopic compositions similar to an early-formed primitive mantle composition.
The presence of these early-earth signatures in the six flood basalts suggests that a significant fraction of the world’s largest volcanic events originate from a modern mantle source that is similar to the primitive reservoir discovered in Baffin Island and West Greenland. This primitive mantle is hotter, due to a higher concentration of radioactive elements, and more easily melted than other mantle reservoirs. As a result, it could be more likely to generate the eruptions that form flood basalts.